What is the Money Market: Meaning, Instruments Types & How its works
The market with very safe, highly liquid short-term debt securities is known as the money market. It involves substantial transactions among dealers and institutions at the retail level. High levels of safety and low investment returns are features of the money market.
The Money Market can successfully be considered one of the foundational elements of the world financial system. It includes substantial cash transfers overnight between the government and financial institutions, although an overwhelming majority of money trading activities are wholesale and retail exchanges between businesses and financial institutions.
The government typically plays a vital part in the money market, functioning as both a borrower and a lender. It frequently uses this status to affect the amount of money available and interest rates through its monetary policy. The international money market makes it easier for nations to lend money to one another and borrow it again.
The money market is, thus, distinct from the rest of the financial sector, which focuses on medium- and long-term lending. For money market purposes, the term "money" refers to a variety of assets as well as bank notes.
Using the Money Market
Commercial paper is a commonly used approach for borrowing in the wholesale market because it offers a wider range of maturities and interest rates that are higher than those on bank term deposits or treasury notes.
Investors can trade in the money market by purchasing short-term CDs, money market funds, municipal notes, or government treasury bills. Retail money market sites for individual investors include nearby banking institutions and a treasury website belonging to the government. Another means of investment in the money market is through the involvement of brokers.
Within the money market, the state introduces treasury notes with their maturity spanning between a few days to an entire year. Primary dealers purchase significant amounts from the authorities to be traded among them or sold to private investors. Individual investors can purchase them through a government-administered process (through its website) or via a bank or brokerage. Additionally, state, regional, and municipal governments are issued short-term bonds.
Types of Money Market Instruments
Money Market Funds
Only businesses and financial organizations that lend and borrow money in sums ranging from $5 million to far over $1 billion per transaction are allowed to participate in the wholesale money market.
Certificates of Deposit (CDs)
Because most certificates of deposit (CDs) sell with maturities of up to 10 years, they are not exactly money market funds. There are, however, CDs with durations as brief as three to six months.
Money market Accounts
One kind of savings account is the money market account. While some issuers give account holders restricted powers to periodically make a withdrawal or write cheques on the account, they all pay interest.
Money market accounts typically offer marginally better interest rates than traditional savings accounts.
Businesses in need of a quick infusion of cash can buy and sell unsecured loans on the commercial paper market. Because only very creditworthy companies take part, the risks are minimal.
A short-term credit that a bank also assures is the banker's acceptance. A banker's approval, which is frequently used in international trade, functions as a guarantee and is comparable to a postdated check.
Banks and Money Market
Most money markets are centred on commercial banks, which act as both suppliers and consumers of capital. In many markets, a few sizable commercial banks act as middlemen. These banks have a special position because they are responsible for supplying a significant portion of the money supply. Some nations achieve this by issuing their own currency in the form of hand-to-hand coinage that circulates.
There is an extensive amount of bank money in continuous circulation, and any one bank may occasionally have a higher inflow of cash than outflow at different points in time. These net surpluses and scarcities are distributed using the money market tools, ensuring that the banking industry can always offer the forms of payment required for conducting business in each nation.
In reality, the commercial banks' reserves—which are constantly redistributed through the mechanisms of the money market—consist mainly of the balances of deposits that these banks have on the records of the central bank or of central bank notes that they retain in their own safes. The potential number of commercial bank reserves grows as the central bank accumulates more assets and pays for them by crediting depositor accounts or by issuing its own notes.
The central bank can also raise bank reserves by lending to banks or other middlemen like bill dealers or government securities dealers. Bank reserves are proportionally decreased when there is a reduction in the loans.
Money market assets can include a lot of short-term paper like treasury bills, bankers' acceptances, dealers' loans, and commercial paper. It also deals in longer-maturity government securities and other types of credit instruments that are eligible for advances or rediscounts at the central bank. The highest liquidity money market assets are deposits at the central bank.
Difference between Money Market and Capital Market
Money markets require dealing in debt with a maturity of less than a year. Governments, businesses, and investors utilize it largely to maintain a regular cash flow and to make little profits.
On the other hand, long-term loans and securities are sold and bought exclusively on the capital market. The entire bonds and stock markets collectively are referred to as "capital markets." Companies issue shares bought by private investors to raise funds for their long-term operations through capital markets. While a stock's value may change, it has no expiration date, unlike most money market products.
Advantages and Disadvantages of Money Market
- Very little danger.
- FDIC-insured, backed by governments or banks.
- High creditworthiness of borrowers
- Extremely liquid
- Greater profits than the majority of banks.
- Low returns that might not match inflation
- May impose steep withdrawal thresholds or large minimum investments.
Evaluating the risk factor
The FDIC ensures the majority of money market accounts for depositors up to a specific amount per institution. Owning a CD or T-bill also functionally eliminates the possibility of losing money because money market instruments are low-risk. Some money market funds may "break the buck" at times of high financial stress and temporarily experience losses. However, this is typically quickly fixed.
One of the safest methods to invest money is in money market accounts and money market funds. They might frequently offer returns that are substantially lower than those of other investments, even below inflation in some particular cases. But due to their extremely secure character, consumers and corporations successfully utilize money markets as a short-term investment for their cash reserves, earning marginal profits while doing so.