How is per capita income calculated?
Per capita income is a key economic indicator that shows how much money each person in a region or country earns on average. It is calculated by dividing a country's total income by its population. This metric helps determine a country's living standard, economic growth, and level of development.
Formula of per capita income?
Per capita income is calculated by dividing the total income of a region by the number of people who live there. The formula for determining the income per person is simple and easy to understand.
Per capita income = Total income / Population of the area
Total income is the income generai in a particular area or country during a specific period. This includes wages, salaries, income from businesses etc.
On the other hand, the population is the total number of people living in that area or country during the same period. It includes everyone, no matter how old they are or what they do for a living.
Let's understand this with the help of an example. Suppose a country has 5,000 people and a total income of ₹10,00,000. Using the formula of per capita income, we can figure out how much each person makes:
Per Capita Income = Total Income / Population Per Capita Income = ₹10,00,000 / 5,000
Per Capita Income = ₹200
So, the country's per capita income is ₹200, which means that, on average, each person makes ₹200 per year.
Did You Know?💡 Per capita income in India has more than doubled to ₹1.97 lakh in about nine years as per Union Budget 2023.
Factors affecting per capita income
The per capita income of a country is affected by many factors:
- Economic growth: With the expansion of economic growth and reforms, the overall size of the economy expands, leading to an increase in per capita income.
- Population: The size of the population also plays a critical role in determining the per capita income. For example, the countries with large populations may have lower per capita income due to greater income inequality. Conversely, countries with smaller populations may have higher per capita income due to greater income equality.
- Education: The skills and education policies of the area are also determinants of per capita income. This is because it directly impacts the productivity and labour market of that economy.
- Infrastructure: Industrialisation, diversification of economic activities, infrastructure development can raise per capita income, stimulate growth and create new job opportunities.
- Government policies: Policies such as taxation, subsidies, housing and education schemes can also affect the per capita income of an area. This can help to raise the average income and improve the economic prospects of the region.
Per capita income and standard of living
Per capita income is often used to show how well a country or region's economy is doing. The more money each person earns in an area, the more money they have to spend on goods and services. This, in turn, can lead to a higher standard of living.
There is sometimes a clear link between per capita income and living standards, because many things other than income contribute to a high quality of life. For example, access to education, health care and social services can have a significant impact on living standards even when per capita income is low.
In summary, per capita income is a key measure of economic well-being, calculated by dividing a country's total income by its population. Per capita income is closely linked to living standards, as it is a useful indicator of the economic well-being of individuals in a country. However, it could be a better measure as it needs to take into account the distribution of income within a country.
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